Javanese Gamelan Art HistoryArt History-Javanese Gamelan One of the famous Indonesian cultural richness in music is the art of gamelan. Gamelan easily found in various regions of Indonesia. There gamelan music in Java, Madura, Bali, and Lombok. Of course, variants that use different musical instruments. Neither the name nor form.
Javanese Gamelan Art History
Gamelan is a set of musical instruments with pentatonic melodies, which consists of: Kendang, Bonang, Bonang Successor, demung, Saron, Peking (Gamelan), Kenong & Kethuk, Slenthem, Gender, Gong, Xylophone, Trigon,, zither, flute. The main components of gamelan instruments are: bamboo, metal, and wood. Each instrument has its own function in gamelan music show.
Gamelan word itself comes from the Javanese "gamel" which means hitting / beating, followed by the suffix "an" are making it as a noun. While the term gamelan has a meaning as a whole played musical instruments together.
For the Java community in particular, gamelan is not something foreign in their daily lives. In other words, people know exactly which one or a set of gamelan called gamelan. They already know the term 'gamelan', 'musical', or 'fowl'. But perhaps there are still many who do not know how the history of the orchestra itself, since when the gamelan began there in Java?.
Originally, gamelan musical instruments made by relief panels in Borobudur temple in the 8th century. In the reliefs in the temple, there are several instruments consisting of drums, bamboo flutes, lutes, and plucked strings swiped, and bells.
Since then, the instrument used as a musical instrument in a Javanese gamelan music. Instrument contained in the Borobudur reliefs used to play the gamelan. During the Hindu-Buddhist cultural influence growing in the Kingdom of Majapahit, was introduced in the Javanese gamelan in the Kingdom of Majapahit.
According to Javanese mythology, the gamelan was created by Sang Hyang Guru in Saka Era. He is the god who controlled all the land of Java, with palaces on the mountain Mahendra in the area Medangkamulan (now Lawu). Gamelan instrument is first created is "gong", which is used to summon the gods. After that, in order to convey specific messages, Sang Hyang Guru re-creating some of the other equipment such as two gongs, until finally forming a set of gamelan.
At the time of Majapahit, gamelan instruments developed very well to reach their present form and spread in some areas such as the Balinese, and Sundanese (West Java).
The first authentic evidence of the existence of gamelan found at the Borobudur Temple, Magelang, Central Java that was founded in the 8th century. At its relief seen some equipment such as the bamboo flute, bells, drums in various sizes, harp, stringed musical instrument that is swiped and learned, including some idea of the element of metal musical instruments. Subsequent developments, gamelan is used to accompany wayang performance and dance. Until finally stand as its own music and is equipped with voice sinden.
Gamelan developing in Central Java, a little different from Balinese gamelan or Sundanese gamelan. Javanese gamelan has a softer tone when compared to smart Balinese gamelan and Sundanese gamelan lilting flute and voice dominated. According to some studies, the difference is the result of the disclosure of the way of life "Javanese people" in general.
The views in question are: the Java people should always "maintain physical life and spiritual harmony, and harmony in speech and action". Therefore, "the Javanese" always avoid expression explosive and always try to achieve tolerance between people. The most obvious manifestation in gamelan music is the pull string fiddle that is being, balanced blend of sound kenong, saron drums and xylophone and gong sounds on every cover of rhythm.
Gamelan orchestra tuning and making is a very complex process. Gamelan tuning using four ways, namely "slendro", "pelog", "gamelan" (special area of Sunda, or West Java), and "madenda" (also known as diatonic), the same as the original minor scale that is widely used in Europe.
Slendro has 5 tones per octave, namely: 1 2 3 5 6 [C-D E + GA] with small interval difference.
Pelog has 7 tones per octave, namely: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 [C + D E-F # G # AB] with big interval difference.
Gamelan music composition created with some rules, which consist of several rounds and pathet, limited by a gong and the melodies were created in a unit consisting of 4 tones.
Javanese gamelan music in Java itself is called musicians. Musical is a term used to describe the subtle strains of gamelan music. Musical arts that use the gamelan instruments found in the art of dance and the art of Javanese distinctive voice, which is as follows.
Sound art composed of sinden, take it, Gerong, sendon, and Celuk.
Consists of the art of puppetry shadow puppets, puppet show, puppet gedog, klithik puppet, wayang beber, wayang torch, and puppets revelation.
The art of dance consists of dancing srimpi, bedayan, show, wireng, and dance pethilan.
Javanese gamelan is not only played to accompany singing, dance, puppets and attractions. When an official ceremony held at the royal palace, used gamelan music as accompaniment. Especially, if there are members of a wedding palace Javanese tradition. The Javanese gamelan music of any use when holding the wedding